Somehow, I never liked GetOpt. I am not convinced by all details of GFlags as well. But, it is the better option than whipping up some CmdLine parser myself.

For the nuget package I focused only on the thread-safe static library. If you need another variant, feel free to reuse my AppVeyor artifacts. Those include basically everything.

As usual, the package code is free: https://bitbucket.org/sgrottel_nuget/gflags_nuget

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Previously, I wrote about using one global msbuild xml file to override nuget package content for local development. While this does work, it comes with a warning if multiple packages use this mechanism:

***Test\packages\***.0.7.1-prerelease-\build\native\***.targets(7,5):
warning MSB4011: "***Test\packagesoverride.xml.user" cannot be imported again. It was already imported at "***Test\packages\***.0.7.1-prerelease-\build\native\***.targets (6,3)".
This is most likely a build authoring error. This subsequent import will be ignored. [***Test\***Test.vcxproj]

While this is not realy a problem, it is a warning. And I don’t like warning. I like my projects to build entirly without warnings.

A soltion for this comes from classic c++ programming: use an include guard. These are the changes required:

The packagesoverride.xml.user must define a default variable. I named it HAS_packagesoverride:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Project ToolsVersion="15.0" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/developer/msbuild/2003">
  <PropertyGroup>
    <HAS_packagesoverride>True</HAS_packagesoverride>
    <NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir>C:\Dev\SomeProject\Dir</NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir>
  </PropertyGroup>
</Project>

And now importing this xml in the nuget packages’ target files can this for this variable to avoid multiple import:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Project ToolsVersion="4.0" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/developer/msbuild/2003" InitialTargets="FaroMorfCopySymbols">

  <!-- Import override settings, if they exist -->
  <ImportGroup>
    <Import
      Condition="Exists('$(SolutionDir)packagesoverride.xml.user') and '$(HAS_packagesoverride)' != 'True'"
      Project="$(SolutionDir)packagesoverride.xml.user" />
  </ImportGroup>

<!-- ... -->

 

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Previously, I wrote about using NuGet for software components, which are still in active development. One of the most important factors was the capability to override the nuget package’s content with content fetched from a directory, e.g., a working copy clone. The key element for this was a MSBuild variable NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir.

The original plan was to edit this variable using a project property page. While having a UI is nice, this has proven not to work on larger projects. The reason is simple: in larger projects, we talk about a vs solution with multiple vc projects, and many of these projects might reference our NuGet package. If we now need to switch to our local directory, we need to adjust the project properties for every project consuming the package. This is tiring and error prone. Forget to adjust just one project and you might end up with inconsistent builds. Therefore, I was seeking a more centralized configuration.

Update 2019-03-02

I updated the code examples to reflect the updates I recently came up with.

Dev. Override – II

The principle idea of having a variable to control the override remains valid. The targets in your nuget might look like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Project ToolsVersion="4.0" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/developer/msbuild/2003">

  <!-- ... -->

  <!-- Compiler settings: defines and includes -->
  <ItemDefinitionGroup Condition="'$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)' == ''">
    <ClCompile>
      <PreprocessorDefinitions>HAS_NUGETDEVPACKAGETEST_TESTLIB;%(PreprocessorDefinitions)</PreprocessorDefinitions>
      <AdditionalIncludeDirectories>$(MSBuildThisFileDirectory)include\;%(AdditionalIncludeDirectories)</AdditionalIncludeDirectories>
    </ClCompile>
  </ItemDefinitionGroup>
  <ItemDefinitionGroup Condition="'$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)' != ''">
    <ClCompile>
      <PreprocessorDefinitions>HAS_NUGETDEVPACKAGETEST_TESTLIB;HAS_NUGETDEVPACKAGETEST_TESTLIB_DEVDIR;%(PreprocessorDefinitions)</PreprocessorDefinitions>
      <AdditionalIncludeDirectories>$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)\Project\include\;%(AdditionalIncludeDirectories)</AdditionalIncludeDirectories>
    </ClCompile>
  </ItemDefinitionGroup>

  <!-- ... -->

</Project>

The obvious question is the definition of our DevDir variable.

For this is propose a central msbuild xml at the level of the vs solution!

We include it in our targets file, right after the root Project tag starts:

<ImportGroup>
  <Import Project="$(SolutionDir)packagesoverride.xml.user" Condition="Exists('$(SolutionDir)packagesoverride.xml.user') and '$(HAS_packagesoverride)' != 'True'" />
</ImportGroup>

This line imports the msbuild xml file, if it exists. Notice, how the file name is generic and not related to our specific package. This is because multiple nuget packages can share this file!

The content of this central configuration is very simple:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Project ToolsVersion="15.0" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/developer/msbuild/2003">
  <PropertyGroup>
    <HAS_packagesoverride>True</HAS_packagesoverride>
    <NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir>C:\Dev\SomeProject\Dir</NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir>
  </PropertyGroup>
</Project>

Now if you need to override a nuget package for your whole solution, just create this file!

Drawback 1: If the file did not exist previously, an you create it, then you need to rebuild all projects with nugets referencing this package. Because they might be affected by this file.

However, once the file does exist, changes to the file are currectly and automatically detected by visual studio, and build operations are correctly triggered in the affected projects. So, it might be a nice idea to keep a file with an empty property group in place, just in case.

If you need to override multiple nugets at once, just add multiple entries into this one property group.

Drawback 2: There is no UI. So you need to edit it in your favorite text editor, meaning, you are prone to all typing errors you can come up with.

All in all, I believe this central file for the nuget override configuration is an improvement.

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GLM is a nice, lean, good math library for OpenGL. It’s header-only. Does a NuGet package make sense anyway? I say “Yes”. The simple usage and the clean versioning make up for the minimal additional overhead.

I am now also helping in maintaining the GLM Nuget package. And I updated the package to version 0.9.9.

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This article discusses a way how to create and use a NuGet Package for Libraries which are not yet stable and which are still under active development.

Especially, the core idea is to develop such an library and a project consuming this library in an efficient way.

Concept

As we develop on Windows with Visual Studio, NuGet is a powerful tool to manage library dependencies in Projects, for external 3rd Party libraries, as well as for our own libraries. Using Git our alternatives would be:

  • Git Submodules – with their known problems (detached head, multiple commits, etc.)
  • cmake – vs. Visual Studio solutions
  • manual paths / zip packages – manual work

Using NuGet seems the way to go for Windows-Only projects. Even for native c++ components. (Side note: coapp is dead and is not missed.)

The Problem

However: if we have a library component and a consuming project, which we have to actively develop both at the same time, the NuGet process gets prohibitively tiring. For each change in the library, we need to build the lib, repack the NuGet package, increasing its (build) version number, update the consuming project’s NuGet reference, and build the project… For every tiny typo.

The Idea

The core idea is to prepare the NuGet package in such a way, that a local override of the package’s content is possible. Think of an environment variable holding the file system path to the library’s development directory. If this environment variable is not set, the content of the NuGet package is use. If the environment variable is set, then include paths and library paths are set to directly use the files found in that development directory (obviously, resulting in an unclean in-development version of the project).

Since native NuGet packages simply use an MSBuild script to integrate themselves into a project, we have (almost) all the possibilities MSBuild has to offer.

Set up the NuGet Package

Creating a native C++ library NuGet package without coapp is not very difficult, but out-of-focus of this article. For the sake of simplicity I only discuss the (second) easiest task: a static library. We need some header file and some static library files. All in all the whole file looks like this:

NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.nuspec

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<package xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/packaging/2010/07/nuspec.xsd">
  <!--
    Create package:
    cd solution directory
    nuget pack NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.nuspec -Version 0.2.0-build001
    -->

  <!-- package metadata -->
  <metadata>
    <id>NugetDevPackageTest.testLib</id>
    <version>$version$</version>
    <title>NugetDevPackageTest testLib</title>
    <authors>Sebastian Grottel</authors>
    <projectUrl>https://bitbucket.org/sgr_faro/nuget-dev-package-test/overview</projectUrl>
    <requireLicenseAcceptance>false</requireLicenseAcceptance>
    <description>Nuget package of `someLib` to test dev nuget package concept</description>
    <tags>nugetdevpackagetest testLib native</tags>
  </metadata>

  <!-- content -->
  <files>
    <!-- include header files -->
    <file src="DemoClass.h" target="build\native\include" />

    <!-- static libraries -->
    <file src="lib\Win32\Debug\some.lib" target="build\native\lib\Win32\Debug" />
    <file src="lib\Win32\Release\some.lib" target="build\native\lib\Win32\Release" />
    <file src="lib\x64\Debug\some.lib" target="build\native\lib\x64\Debug" />
    <file src="lib\x64\Release\some.lib" target="build\native\lib\x64\Release" />

    <!-- build rules -->
    <file src="NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.targets" target="build\native" />

  </files>
</package>

There are two interesting aspects to highlight here:

  1. The static libraries can be collected from any directories. Important is that you specify the correct target directories. Follow the semantic rules NuGet specifies.
  2. The first build rule file, NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.targets, controls the integration of the NuGet Package’s content into the Visual Studio project. This file must have the same name as the package itself.

We set up the targets file as follows:

NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.targets

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Project ToolsVersion="4.0" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/developer/msbuild/2003">

  <!-- If development directory is empty, use content from the package -->
  <PropertyGroup Condition="'$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)' == ''">
    <__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_IncludeDir>$(MSBuildThisFileDirectory)include/</__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_IncludeDir>
    <__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_LibrarayPath>$(MSBuildThisFileDirectory)lib\$(Platform)\$(Configuration)\some.lib</__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_LibrarayPath>
  </PropertyGroup>

  <!-- If development directory is set, use the content found there -->
  <PropertyGroup Condition="'$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)' != ''">
    <__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_IncludeDir>$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)/</__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_IncludeDir>
    <__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_LibrarayPath>$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)\lib\$(Platform)\$(Configuration)\some.lib</__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_LibrarayPath>
  </PropertyGroup>

  <!-- If development directory is set, define an additional macro -->
  <ItemDefinitionGroup Condition="'$(NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir)' != ''">
    <ClCompile>
      <PreprocessorDefinitions>HAS_NUGETDEVPACKAGETEST_TESTLIB_DEVDIR;%(PreprocessorDefinitions)</PreprocessorDefinitions>
    </ClCompile>
  </ItemDefinitionGroup>

  <!-- Compiler options: package macro and include paths -->
  <ItemDefinitionGroup>
    <ClCompile>
      <PreprocessorDefinitions>HAS_NUGETDEVPACKAGETEST_TESTLIB;%(PreprocessorDefinitions)</PreprocessorDefinitions>
      <AdditionalIncludeDirectories>$(__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_IncludeDir);%(AdditionalIncludeDirectories)</AdditionalIncludeDirectories>
    </ClCompile>
    <ResourceCompile>
      <AdditionalIncludeDirectories>$(__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_IncludeDir);%(AdditionalIncludeDirectories)</AdditionalIncludeDirectories>
    </ResourceCompile>
  </ItemDefinitionGroup>

  <!-- Linker options: library (full) path -->
  <ItemDefinitionGroup>
    <Link>
      <AdditionalDependencies>$(__NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_LibrarayPath);%(AdditionalDependencies)</AdditionalDependencies>
    </Link>
  </ItemDefinitionGroup>

</Project>

Create the NuGet package:

nuget pack NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.nuspec -Version 0.2.0-build002

(obviously, you adjust the version number as you like to.) and be happy that it already does work as you intended: if the environment variable NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir is set, the content of this folder is used instead of the NuGet package’s content.

Setting an environment variable and the need to restart Visual Studio any time you change it, this is obviously not great. We can improve on that by adding a GUI.

Visual Studio Property Page

We add an Visual Studio property page for your project to the NuGet package, allowing us to change the setting of the variable from within Visual Studio. For this we add an XML description of the values we want to change:

overrideSettings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<ProjectSchemaDefinitions xmlns="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Build.Framework.XamlTypes;assembly=Microsoft.Build.Framework">

  <!-- Project property settings to override content of nuget development packages -->
  <Rule Name="ProjectSettings_NugetDevOverride" PageTemplate="tool" DisplayName="Nuget Development Override" SwitchPrefix="/" Order="1">

    <!-- Category to identify this package -->
    <Rule.Categories>
      <Category Name="NugetDevPackageTest_testLib" DisplayName="NugetDevPackageTest.testLib" />
    </Rule.Categories>

    <!-- Store override settings only in the user file -->
    <Rule.DataSource>
      <DataSource Persistence="UserFile" ItemType="" />
    </Rule.DataSource>

    <!-- Override development path -->
    <StringProperty Name="NugetDevPackageTest_testLib_DevDir"
      DisplayName="Development Directory"
      Subtype="folder"
      Description="Override content of Nuget package with content of this directory. If this field is empty (default) the content of the nuget package is used. This value is persistent as user setting only."
      Category="NugetDevPackageTest_testLib" />

  </Rule>
</ProjectSchemaDefinitions>

Note that the StringProperty directly stores it’s value in the variable we are already using. Make sure not to use this variable as an Environment variable anymore!

Now, we reference this property page from the other files of our NuGet package:

NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.nuspec

...
    <!-- build rules -->
    <file src="NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.targets" target="build\native" />
    <file src="overrideSettings.xml" target="build\native" />

  </files>
</package>

 

NugetDevPackageTest.testLib.targets

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Project ToolsVersion="4.0" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/developer/msbuild/2003">

  <!-- include the gui property page to override the development directory -->
  <ItemGroup>
    <PropertyPageSchema Include="$(MSBuildThisFileDirectory)\overrideSettings.xml" />
  </ItemGroup>

  <!-- If development directory is empty, use content from the package -->
...

Now create the new version of the package. Update the package reference in your consuming project. You might need to restart visual studio once. And you should find the new property page in the settings of your project.

Use the NuGet Package or the local Version

Be Aware of all the pitfalls

  • Never commit the .user file of your projects to the repository!
  • If your project code requires local changes within the code usually packed into NuGet, your project will not compile correctly on any other machine!
    • Before you push, or at least before you create a pull request, you need to push and publish the changed NuGet project and you need to reference the NuGet package cleanly without override.
  • You need to use two Visual Studios running, one for your project and one for the NuGet-ted project.
    • If you run your project in the debugger, and you step into functions from the NuGet project, the corresponding source file is opened in the Visual Studio of your project. You can edit the files there, but of course you cannot compile the NuGet library here. Remember to switch to the right Visual Studio for that.

The Proposed Process

testApp – Visual Studio #1 testLib – Visual Studio #2 Comment
Clone testApp
Open testAppsolution in Visual Studio #1
Build testApp This fetches the NuGet package of testLib and builds the App with the content of that package, e.g. version 1.0.0
Clone testLib
Open testLib solution in Visual Studio #2
Build testLib
(Build testApp) Nothing changes. Still the NuGet package is used. Build should not do anything (up to date)
Open Project settings and override the nuget settings. Reference the directory where you cloned and built testLib
(Build testApp) Known Issue: Visual Studio still believes the project would be up to date
Rebuild testApp App is now built with the testLib built in your local directory!
(Build testApp) The project is up to date (which is correct)
Change some code and build testLib
Build testApp The project correctly detects that it needs to build (at least to link) again. The changes of the local testLib can directly be used.
You start testApp in the Debugger You can even enter code of testLib, look at local / private variables, etc. The corresponding source files of testLib are opened in Visual Studio #1!
You edit source of testLib WRONG Visual Studio!
You hit Build → testApp is up to date It is the wrong Visual Studio. You cannot build testLib there. You need to switch to the other Visual Studio
Visual Studio might detect the changes at the source files, if they are opened. If the files are not opened, everything is ok. If Visual Studio does ask you, select to keep changes made outside Visual Studio #2
Hit F5 (start Debugging) Binary and source code do not match! Visual Studio #1 should warn you about it if you try, e.g., to set a breakpoint in source code of testLib
Build testLib The testLib is update with the changes to the source code you made in Visual Studio #1
Hit F5 (start Debugging) Visual Studio #1 correctly detects the updates of testLib, builds again, and executes testApp with the newest version of testLib.
 

 

 

Develop your changes in testApp and testLib. Now you are finished and want to push a stable version to your CI system

Be sure testLib is correct in all configurations
Commit + Push testLib
Trigger built / update of new NuGet package (we call it Ver++)
Disable the override settings for the NuGet package
Update the testApp project to use the NuGet package Ver++ Ideally this package should be the result of your CI system.
Compile and testApp in all configurations Since you had the identical code tested before locally, this should not show any problems. If it does, you likely missed something before.
Commit + Push your final update of testApp This should be solely the increment of the NuGet package version
Build / Test your testApp on your CI system All should work fine.

Known Issues

Visual Studio Property Pages GUI

The Visual Studio GUI is sometimes not correctly updated. One such situation is created by the property page descriptions injected via NuGet packages.

If you initially add a NuGet package with such a property page, or if the NuGet package you are using changed its property page, Visual Studio might not show you the right proptery page (or might not show any property page).

If this happens, restart Visual Studio after installing / restoring the NuGet package and you should be fine.

Visual Studio’s Fast Up to Date Check misses Changes of the StringProperty

When in Visual Studio a build is triggered (e.g. by pressing F5 for a Debug start), Visual Studio does not invoke MSBuild to determine if the project is up to date. Instead is uses an internal mechanism to quickly decide if a rebuild is required. This internal mechanism, known as fast up to date check, does not perform all required checks. E.g., it misses changed to the paths defined by the variable defined within the property page GUI created by our NuGet package.

This means, whenever the value of this variable is changed, you should trigger a rebuild of the consuming project.

One workaround would be to disable the fast up to date check for this project. However, for large projects, like SCENE, this introduces more pain than the required rebuild.

cf.: https://stackoverflow.com/q/47516374/552373

Version Schizophrenia

There is an semantic problem: you reference a Nuget package version, e.g. 1.0.0. But you override the content with changed files. Those will eventually be published as a new version, e.g. 1.0.1. But until then, your consuming project will reference those as version 1.0.0.

Your build process must be aware of this issue.

You should introduce integration tests to make sure such information mismatch never enters release branches.

Deep Dependency Graph Version Conflict

Consuming the unstable library from the development directory, is a project setting, not a solution setting. If you have a deep dependency graph and you are consuming this library via multiple routes, the override setting only influences one single route! Especially, if you use another Nuget package which uses your lib nuget, you cannot do anything about it. You need to be carefully aware of potential binary compatibility issues in such a construct.

Workarounds could be based compile-time and run-time checks of version numbers and the “dirty-lib-flag” (cf. HAS_NUGETDEVPACKAGETEST_TESTLIB_DEVDIR).

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Hi, I updated the NuGet package for GLFW once again.

The content is basically identical to before, but there are three important changes:

  • The version number now uses four numbers: 3.2.1.5. The fourth number is a package-build number which I can increase, even though I pack the same version of GLFW. This finally allows me to get rid of the “pre-release” flags I previously used for the VS 2017 repackage.
  • I no longer use CoApp. CoApp is dead and not really missed. At work I started writing .nuspec and .targets files manually, and this is neither very hard, nor very much work.
  • Last but not least, I added some properties, available within the Visual Studio GUI as part of the properties pages. There you can now enforce configuration and toolset version of the library you want to use. This is especially useful if you have special configurations which cannot automatically mapped by NuGet. You can now map those manually, at least.

Of course, everything is available on bitbucket.

Now, I am waiting for the next version of GLFW to be published.

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